A centimeter ruler for measuring working and testing distance is included. The chart can be illuminated individually by means of an infra red remote controller.


The refractive tests include:

1. Measurement of visual acuity (using Snellen letterm illiterate E-chart and Times Roman reading type)

2. Accurate determination of presbyopic additions and other near corrections.

3. Near vision astigmatism tests.

4. Amplitude of accommodation (including monocular measurements under binocular conditions.


The Binocular balance tests include:

1. Fixation disparity test for uncompensated heterophoria motor eye dominance.

2. Accommodation-convergence relationship.

3. Quantitative evaluation of foveal suppression in heterophoria patients.

4. Near point of convergence.

5. Targets for subjective cover tests for heterophoria and harmonious ARC.